The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes
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Tertulia Moderna: Book Review: "The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes"
Lazaro serves a master in painting tambourines in a short sixth treatise , until he becames water-seller , thanks to a chaplain. Seventh and last treatise introduces Lazaro's brief experience helping a bailiff. Then he begins to work as a proclaimer of an Archpriest 's wines. The Archpriest lover, married to Lazaro, originates rumours that her husband denies in this book. We read an allusion to one of the two Cortes from Carlos V in Toledo and Nevertheless including our book in the inquisitional Index for forbidden books and its reedition as a "corrected" one from would show that his writter did hide deliberately his own name and identity.
It is difficult to say whether this was the original Lazarillo or just a copy. At the end of 19th century, Morel-Fatio talked about Valdes brothers. Alfonso mastered epistolary and dialogic arts in the mood of Lazarillo style, omitting his own author name as he always did in his works. The character of ruin Milon , the use of first person and the several masters for Ass Lucius, would have deserved our author's interest.
The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes (Markham translation)
Other companion of him would become a dog-. In its style Lazarillo follows Quintiliano with binarian rythms in a single tone, far from artificial medieval rhetorics. We realize his big desire of ostentation and his cynical, disillusioned jocular mood. The cruel clergy man is an allegory for avarice who isolates him from the world and dismisses him after beating his head.
The hidalgo , ridiculous proprietor of a block of destroyed houses and a fallen dove-house, lives on nothing and teachs Lazaro the true value of honour , before leaving him -who sustained his master- in the cruel hands of Justice. The surname de Tormes comes from the river Tormes. In the narrative, Lazarillo explains that his father ran a mill on the river, where he was literally born on the river.
There is an old mill on the river, and a statue of Lazarillo and the blind man next to the Roman bridge [ puente romano ] in the city.
There are two appearances of the name Lazarus in the Bible, and not all critics agree as to which story the author was referring when he chose the name. The more well-known tale is in John —44 , in which Jesus raises Lazarus from the dead. The second is in Luke —31 , a parable about a beggar named Lazarus at the gate of a stingy rich man's house.
In contrast to the fancifully poetic language devoted to fantastic and supernatural events about unbelievable creatures and chivalric knights, the realistic prose of Lazarillo described suppliants purchasing indulgences from the Church, servants forced to die with their masters on the battlefield as Lazarillo's father did , thousands of refugees wandering from town to town, poor beggars flogged away by whips because of the lack of food. The anonymous author included many popular sayings and ironically interpreted popular stories.
Lazarillo attacked the appearance of the church and its hypocrisy, though not its essential beliefs, a balance not often present in following picaresque novels. Besides creating a new genre, Lazarillo de Tormes was critically innovative in world literature in several aspects:. Don Quixote interrogates this writer about his book:. The author criticises many organisations and groups in his book, most notably the Catholic Church and the Spanish aristocracy.
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These two groups are clearly criticised through the different masters that Lazarillo serves. Characters such as the Cleric, the Friar, the Pardoner, the Priest and the Archbishop all have something wrong either with them as a person or with their character. In the final chapter, Lazarillo works for an Archpriest, who arranges his marriage to the Archpriest's maid.
It is clear that Lazarillo's wife cheats on him with the Archpriest, and all vows of celibacy are forgotten. In Chapter 3, Lazarillo becomes the servant of a Squire. This is a parody of the importance of having a strong image among the nobility. The identity of the author of Lazarillo has been a puzzle for nearly four hundred years.
Given the subversive nature of Lazarillo and its open criticism of the Catholic Church, it is likely that the author chose to remain anonymous out of fear of religious persecution. Neither the author nor the date and place of the first appearance of the work is known. Despite these claims, the assignment of the work to Diego Hurtado de Mendoza was generally accepted, until Alfred Paul Victor Morel-Fatio , in , demonstrated the untenability of that candidate [ clarification needed ].
Two continuations or second parts appeared — one, anonymously, in , and the other, accredited to H.
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